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What is hyperthermia?
Hyperthermia is an increase in body temperature above the normal body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.
When the temperature is too high, it becomes a medical emergency, as it can lead to death or cause some other disabling complications.
Hyperthermia occurs when:
- Hot weather , or a lot of physical activity , makes the skin sweat a lot to rebalance the internal temperature. However, if this phenomenon persists, the body loses its ability to respond effectively and cooling is unsatisfactory, causing hyperthermia.
- Expose your skin to the sun for a long time .
- Not drinking enough water during the day.
- Living and living in places that are often hot , stuffy, overworked,…
- Having diseases such as: heart disease, kidney disease, lung disease, high blood pressure, poor circulation, decreased sweating, underactive sweat glands, obesity, etc.
Subjects prone to hyperthermia
Some subjects are prone to hyperthermia such as:
- People who often work outdoors in hot weather conditions:
Construction workers, farmers, fire protection workers, people who often work around the stove, ….
- People taking medications for high blood pressure and heart disease:
For example, diuretics can reduce hypothermia by reducing sweating. Or if you’re on a salt-based diet to treat high blood pressure, you’re still at risk for hyperthermia.
- Elderly and children : these are 2 subjects prone to hyperthermia. Specifically, the elderly are often less aware of the changes in body temperature when the ambient temperature increases (such as living in the house without turning on the fan or air conditioner when it is hot), or children do not rest but often often play outside in the sun.
Symptoms – Manifestations
Hyperthermia has some of the following symptoms:
- Heat stress : the body responds to stress caused by hot weather.
- Heat fatigue : the body is weakened by high temperature. Often people with signs of heat fatigue will have wet skin and a feeling of cold, weak peripheral pulse. In more severe cases, fainting.
- Heat syncope : sudden weakness, dizziness, and fainting due to high outdoor temperatures. It manifests as moist, cold, pale skin and the appearance of perspiration appearing at the same time. At the same time, the heart rate increases higher while the peripheral pulse weakens.
- Heat cramps : muscle spasms in the upper or lower extremities, even in the abdominal muscles. This muscle spasm is caused by a lack of salt in the human body with hyperthermia.
- Heat edema : occurs when you sit or stand for too long in a hot environment, making your hands and ankles prone to swelling due to fluid retention.
- Heat rash : the appearance of red spots or pimples on the skin when operating in a hot environment for too long, also making clothes drenched with sweat, causing skin moisture. If the body is cooled, the red spots will disappear, and if the skin is not cooled down after the rash appears, it can lead to skin infections.
How to deal with hyperthermia?
If an increase in body temperature occurs, do the following:
In order to control hyperthermia well, you need to determine the cause before you treat it.
For example, if hyperthermia is caused by prolonged exposure to the sun, move the person to a cool, well-ventilated place. Then, giving the person water to drink will alleviate the symptoms of elevated body temperature. Or if you experience an increase in body temperature after using the drug, you should immediately stop the medication you are using and contact your doctor directly.
Cooling the body is the fastest way to deal with hyperthermia. In addition to moving the patient to a cool place, it is important to ensure that the clothing is as comfortable and light as possible.
Depending on the case, you can apply cold and wet towels to certain parts of your body such as your neck, armpits, wrists or groin to reduce the heat.
Treatment after first aid
After giving first aid, should the body temperature be monitored to decrease and stabilize?
With severe cases of hyperthermia such as heat stroke, after first aid, it is necessary to transfer to a hospital or medical station for a doctor to monitor. Because this treatment requires skilled expertise such as intravenous infusion as well as other intensive measures.
Notes when giving first aid to people with hyperthermia
- It is necessary to determine the cause of the hyperthermia in order to take timely remedial measures.
- Move the patient to a cool place, remove unnecessary clothing.
- Give the sick person water to drink (if possible).
- If there are signs of increased body temperature that has not subsided, it is necessary to immediately transfer to a medical station or hospital for emergency treatment.
- When meeting a patient with heat stroke, or stroke with circulatory arrest, it is necessary to give first aid by breathing, giving chest compressions while waiting for the ambulance to arrive.
Some notes to avoid hyperthermia
Understanding the causes of hyperthermia, you need to pay attention to some of the following issues:
- Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight:
When going out in the sun, you need to wear a hat or protective gear to protect yourself from the sun, reduce the time you spend standing and working in the sun for too long.
- Wear lightweight cotton clothing.
- Limit participation in activities that increase body temperature.
- Avoid drinking alcoholic and caffeinated beverages.
- It is recommended to cool off the body when the weather becomes hot and humid.
- Drink plenty of water every day:
You should drink plenty of water as well as supplement nutritional drinks every day. For example, drinking 8 glasses of water (equivalent to 1600 ml of water) per day. Some experts even recommend drinking about 3 liters of water per day for men, and 2.2 liters per day for women.
In particular, measures should be taken to replenish water and electrolytes with oresol in hot, sunny days.
Reference: Health and life
With the above information, hopefully, it will help you better understand what hyperthermia is as well as the symptoms and how to handle when the body temperature is increased?
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